TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 02 Solution & Explanation

27. (D) 28. (A) 29. (C) 30. (B) 31. (A) 32. (B) 33 (B) 34. (A) 35.(C) 36. (D) 37. (C) 38. (B) 39. (B), (D), (E)

27. Sentence Simplification 1 (D)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? Through the country’s first century, laborers in all kinds of trades were involved // in small-scale protests to better their working conditions, // but it was when the first labor unions—organizations that speak on behalf of workers for fair wages and good working conditions—began to appear in the late 1800s that // the labor movement gained momentum.

Why Not? (A) Information about the significance labor unions have for the labor movement is left out.

(B) Information that protests were ineffective is not mentioned.

(C) Information that labor unions provided workers with the first opportunity to convey their opinions is not mentioned.

28. Vocabulary I (A)

Q. The word ideals in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? principles can replace ideals in this context.

ideal n. principle about a perfect standard that you hope to attain

principle n. moral rule or belief about what is right and wrong that affects how you behave

29. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word hazardous in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? dangerous can replace hazardous in this context. ^See Clue 29<C)[lines 28-31]

hazardous adj. dangerous, especially to people’s well-being • dangerous adj. possessing ability to harm or kill you

30. Factual Information I (B)

Q. According to paragraph 3, the Washing Society organized strikers by

Why? ~See Clue 30(B)[lines 35-39]

► They formed a union named the Washing Society and organized a strike, spreading the word by going door to door and inviting other washerwomen to join them.

31. Inference I (A)

Q. According to paragraph 3, what can be inferred about the general population’s attitude toward the washerwomen before the strike?

Why? (A) can be inferred from combining the information in lines 32-34 and lines 47-49. «-See Clue 31(A)

Why Not? (B)-(D) Not supported

32. Rhetorical Purpose I (B)

Q. In paragraph 4, why does the author mention the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory owner’s policy of locking the factory doors?

Why? The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory owner’s policy of locking the factory doors is mentioned in order to show that the owner’s policy was responsible for the tragedy and there should be an action to prevent such a thing from happening again. ®-See Clue 32(B)[lines 59-61, 63-65]

33. Inference I (B)

Q. According to paragraph 4, what can be inferred about factory safety before the founding of the Factory Investigating Commission?

Why? (B) can be inferred from the information in lines 70-73. «-See Clue 33(B)

Why Not? (A), (D) Not supported / (C) Incorrect ®-See lines 70-73

34. Vocabulary i (A)

Q. The word endorsed in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? supported can replace endorsed in this context. “-See Clue 34(A)[lines 90-93]

endorse v. to communicate formal support or approval for someone or something


support v. to agree with an idea, group, or person

35. Negative Fact I (C)

Q. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 5 as results of the labor movement EXCEPT



Incorrect Answer Choices Mentioned in the passage
(A) a limited work week that provides employees  with two-day weekends
(B) a minimum wage that guarantees employees will receive a certain amount of compensation [lines 96-97] laws against… minimum wages
(D) a fixed length for workdays so that people cannot be forced to work more than eight hours a day [line 96] eight-hour workdays

36. Reference 1 (D)

Q.The word they in the passage refers to

Why? Because they provide people with a way of coordinating their efforts and defending their common interests, labor unions perform a democratic function. «-See Clue 36(D)[lines 98-101]

37. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word coordinating in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? organizing can replace coordinating in this context. **-See Clue 37(C)[lines 98-101]

coordinate v. to organize an activity so that the people involved in it will cooperate and achieve good results

organize v. to make the necessary arrangements so that an activity can run effectively 

38. Insert Text | B

Q. Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? A They say that unions are responsible for decreasing working hours and establishing safety laws, which increases costs for companies and inhibits their productivity. B This argument is valid because companies do have to make some concessions in order to protect their employees. The problem with this argument, however, is that it suggests that profit is more valuable than laborers’ well-being. “This argument” in the given sentence refers to what the opponents of the labor movement insisted, and is repeated in the following sentence.

39. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? From the earliest days of the United States, workers have been organizing and staging group actions to improve their collective working conditions and benefits.


Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) The Washing Society labor union conducted a strike in Atlanta and raised both the pay and the recognition of washerwomen. Clue 39(B)[lines 32-34] twenty black women who worked as washerwomen met to discuss setting a standard wage

[lines 41-44] The Washing Society’s group action could not be ignored, and city officials were eventually forced to acknowledge these women’s concerns.

[lines 47-49] the strike encouraged this large population to think about the washerwomen’s situation

(D) A fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory and the subsequent pressure from labor unions led the government to pass laws ensuring the safety of workers. Clue 39(D)[lines 56-58] the 1911 fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory that killed 146 of the 500 factory employees

[lines 65-69] The Women’s Trade Union League demanded an investigation, and soon the Factory Investigating Commission was founded, passing laws to promote safety in factories.

(E) The labor movement rejects the idea that company profit is more important than workers’ rights and instead struggles to secure better benefits for laborers.

Clue 39(E)[lines 90-95] Workers are people with rights—a point of view that labor unions have endorsed throughout the history of the labor movement. This belief has led unions to fight for the benefits that many modern working people take for granted

► The whole passage focuses on the role of labor unions in American labor movement history and two major events contributing to its development. And it follows that {(B) Major event 1: Atlanta washerwomen’s strike — (D) Major event 2: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire — (E) Functions of labor unions) ^See

Why Not? (A), (C), (F) Not supported