SOLUTION & EXPLANATION FOR TOEFL IBT READING PRACTICE TEST 03 ( FROM TOEFL IBT IVY’S READING 15 ACTUAL TESTS)
1. Vocabulary | (C)
Q. The word livelihoods in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? incomes can replace livelihoods in this context.
• livelihood n. how you earn money to live
• income n. money you earn from your job or that you receive from investments, the government etc.
2. Factual Information | (D)
Q. According to paragraph 2, the two sides of a weathervane ornament must be unequal in surface area so that
Why? ~See Clue 2(D)[tines 21-24]
► In order to operate correctly, the ornament must be equal in weight but unequal in surface area on either side of its central axis.
3. Vocabulary | (D)
Q. The word affixed in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? attached can replace affixed in this context. See Clue 3(D)[lines 16-191
• affix v. to attach or stick something to something else
• attach v. to fasten or link one object to another
4. Rhetorical Purpose | (C)
Q. Why does the author give information about medieval European weathervanes in paragraph 3?
Why? Information about medieval European weathervanes is given in order to contrast them with early American weathervanes in terms of religious meaning. •*See Clue 4(C)[lines 28-35]
5. Sentence Simplification I (A)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? They were also prevalent in medieval Europe among the wealthy, when ornaments frequently possessed some sort of religious significance, // but by the time the American colonists started producing weathervanes, things had changed;//ornaments made in America were seldom influenced by religion.
Why Not? (B) Information about the ornaments of early American weathervanes is left out.
(D) Not mentioned
6. Factual Information I (B)
Q. According to the information in paragraph 5, how are banner and silhouette ornaments similar?
Why? «See Clue 6(B)[lines 61-62]
Why Not? (A) Incorrect ~-See lines 56-60/(C) Incorrect ~See lines 65-66/ (D) Not mentioned
7. Reference I (A)
Q. The word they in the passage refers to
Why? Silhouette vanes were the prevailing models in previous centuries because of the ease and low cost of their production, and they also experienced a revival in the early 1900s. —See Clue 7(A)[lines 63-66]
8. Rhetorical Purpose I (C)
Q. The author mentions Mass production in paragraph 6 to
Why? Mass production is mentioned as a background for the advent of full-bodied ornaments. —See Clue 8(C) Line 86*8, 93-96]
9. Vocabulary I (A)
Q. The word render in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? present can replace render in this context —See Clue 9(A)[lines 82-85]
• render v. to represent or depict
• present v. to convey or show something intended using precise methods
10. Factual Information I (D)
& According to the passage, the only type of weathervane ornament that would display words would belong to the
Why? -See Clue 10(D)[lines 53-55]
11. Rhetorical Purpose I (D)
Q. Why does the author mention Collectors and historians in paragraph 7?
Why? Collectors and historians are mentioned as examples of groups that highly appreciate weathervanes. —See Clue 11(D)[lines 98-101]
12. Insert Text | A
Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? A fixed rod comprises the lower portion. A It is installed onto a desired surface, usually the roof of a building, and does not move. Frequently, there are directional arms branching out from the center of the rod to indicate the four directions; the letters *N,* E” “S,” and *W” are often affixed to the appropriate arms. B
► ‘It* in the given sentence refers to *A fixed rod.
13. Prose Summary
Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points
|Correct Answer Choices||Clues in the passage|
|(B) Though always comprising the same basic components, weathervanes continuously changed in style and significance, with many ornament variations appearing in America.||Clue 13(B)[lines 13-14] Styles abound, but all weathervanes display a similar structure.
[lines 29-35] in medieval Europe among the wealthy, when ornaments frequently possessed some sort of religious significance, but… things had changed; ornaments made in America were seldom influenced by religion.
[lines 45-46] American craftspeople are credited with introducing the great variety of ornament styles
|(C) Banners and silhouettes are the simplest forms of weathervane ornament and were popular most likely because they were so easy to create.||Clue 13(C)[lines 47-48] Among these, the most basic is known as the banner style [lines 59-61] The simplest version of these figural ornaments is what is called a silhouette. Similar to banner-style creations
[lines 63-65] Silhouette vanes were the prevailing models in previous centuries because of the ease and low cost of their production
|(F) Of the more complex styles, low-relief ornaments represent the pinnacle of craftsmanship, whereas full-bodied ornaments are very intricate and are the most valuable today.||Clue 13(F)[lines 78-80] This style is considered the crowning achievement of the American weathervane craft
[lines 87-88] a new, more complicated style emerged. Known as full-bodied ornaments [lines 101-104] Authentic full-bodied weathervanes can sell for tens of thousands of dollars, and even simple banner-style ornaments are worth large sums.
► The whole passage focuses on the development of American weathervanes, mainly their different types and historical significance. And it follows that <(B) The change of style and meaning of weathervanes — (C) Banner-style ornaments and silhouette ornaments — (F) Low-relief ornaments and full-bodied ornaments and their artistic value) –See (Graphic Organized on p,273 os Why Not? (A) Not mentioned / (D) Mentioned in lines 48-53, but minor / (E) Mentioned in lines 71-74, 78-82, but minor