SOLUTION & EXPLANATION FOR TOEFL IBT READING PRACTICE TEST 03 ( FROM TOEFL IBT IVY’S READING 15 ACTUAL TESTS)
14. (B) 15. (A) 16. (D) 17. (A) 18.(C) 19 (B) 20. (B) 21.(C) 22.(D) 23. (C) 24. (C) 25. Positive Correlation: (A), (C), (E) / Negative Correlation: (B), (F)
14. Vocabulary | (B)
Q. The word attributes in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? features can replace attributes in this context. —See Clue 14(B)[lines 1-4, 9-11]
attribute n. quality, feature, or characteristic, especially one that is considered to be good or useful
feature n. specific part of something that you notice because it seems important, interesting, or typical
15. Reference I (A)
Q. The word it in the passage refers to a-
Why? This correlation enables university professors or administrators to accurately predict a student’s GPA by looking at his or her class attendance record. Or, conversely, it allows them to estimate how well a class was attended by looking at the grades received by the students in that class. —See Clue 15(A)[lines 2329]
16. Sentence Simplification I (D)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? For example, it has been proven that, // on average, the more class sessions college students attend during a semester, // the higher their final grade in that class will be.
Why Not? (A), (B) Not mentioned
(C) Not mentioned (the passage says the more classes attended, the higher their grade, but the converse is not always true)
17. Factual Information I (A)
Q. According to paragraph 3, how does a two-axis graph display the variables of a correlation?
Why? -See Clue 17(A)[lines 36-39]
> … with values on the horizontal x-axis representing one variable and values on the vertical y-axis representing the other.
Why Not? (B) Incorrect —See lines 41-45/(C) Incorrect —See lines 36-39/(D) Incorrect —See lines 41-45
18. Factual Information I (C)
Q. According to paragraph 4, when one variable in a positive correlation increases, the other variable
Why? -See Clue 18(C)[lines 59-60]
19. Rhetorical Purpose I (B)
Q. In paragraph 5, how does the author explain the appearance of a negative correlation line on a graph?
Why? -See Clue 19(B)[lines 71-75]
Why Not? (A), (C) Not mentioned / (D) Incorrect —See lines 72-75
20. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word practically in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? usefulness can replace practicality in this context.
• practicality n. capability or suitability of being used; usefulness
• usefulness n. degree of utility or the state of being of use
21. Vocabulary I (C)
Q. The word engenders in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? brings about can replace engenders in this context ^See Clue 2UC)llines 94-96]
• engender v. to be the cause or to produce a situation
• bring about to cause something to happen
22. Factual Information I (D)
Q. In paragraph 7, the author states that negative correlations
Why? –See Clue 22(D)[lines 89-91]
Why Not? (A)-(C) Not mentioned
23. Negative Fact I (C)
Q. According to the passage, correlations do all of the following EXCEPT
Why? ~ See Clue 23(C)[lines 101-103]
► They can label a relationship as either positive or negative, but they cannot explain the causes behind the relationship.
|Incorrect Answer Choices||Mentioned in the passage|
|(A) facilitate the study of two-variable relationships||[lines 5-6] correlations help describe the relationship between the two variables.|
|(B) enable researchers to make predictions about relationships||[lines 13-15] Using a proven correlation, researchers only have to measure one of the two variables.|
|(D) create specific images on a two-axis graph||[lines 36-36] This relationship is easily plotted on a standard two-axis graph|
24. Insert Text | C
Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? A For instance, researchers should not assume that watching television necessarily engenders bad grades. B The opposite might be true: students who frequently get bad grades become discouraged with schoolwork and choose to watch television instead. C Or there could be a third, unmeasured variable that acts on the relationship, such as the influence of the student’s parents. This dilemma is part of the definition of correlations.
► ‘This dilemma’ refers to the three preceding possibilities.
25. Schematic Table
Q. Directions: Complete the table by matching the statements below.
Select the appropriate statements from the answer choices and match them to the type of correlation to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.
|Correct Answer Choices||Clues in the passage|
|(A) Shows the relationship between the number of classes attended and a student’s final grade||Clue 25(A)[lines 20-23] the more class sessions college students attend during a semester, the higher their final grade in that class will be|
|(C) As one variable decreases, the other variable also decreases.||Clue 25(C)[lines 59-60] They (Both variables) either increase together or decrease together|
|(E) Can create a graphed line that progresses down and to the left||Clue 25(E)[lines 41-45] Because both sets of values in a positive correlation progress in the same way (increasing, in this case), a line will be graphed that slants up and to the right.|
|(B) Allows researchers to estimate a student’s grades by observing how much television the student watches||Clue 25(B)[lines 79-84] The more television the student watches, the lower his or her grades tend to be. Or, to say it another way, students who spend fewer hours watching television tend to have higher grades in school.|
|(F) As one variable decreases, the other variable increases.||Clue 25(F)[lines 63-64] As one variable increases, the other decreases by a proportionate amount.|
Why Not? (D) Incorrect / (G) Incorrect —-See lines 91-94