Reading 3 “Geothermal Energy”
27. A The author mentions geothermal power in 1904 in Italy, and then lists a number of countries worldwide that are using geothermal energy. Choice B is not correct because only successful production is mentioned. Choices C and D are discussed later in the passage.
28. D “… at the global level, geothermal energy supplies less than 0.15% of the total energy supply.”
Choice A is not correct because geothermal energy was used as early as 1904. Choice B is not correct because Russia, Iceland, Mexico, and the United States are in the Northern Hemisphere. Choice C is not correct because several advantages of using geothermal power are noted, but the comparative cost was not mentioned.
29. C In this passage nearly is a synonym for “approaching.” Context comes from the number after the word.
30. B “Some 40 million people today receive their electricity from geothermal energy at a cost com petitive with that [the cost] of other energy sources.” The pronoun “that” does not refer to Choices A, C, or D.
31. D “… considered a nonrenewable energy source when rates of extraction are greater than rates
of natural replenishment.” Choices A, B, and C are true, but they do not explain the term “nonrenewable.”
32. A High heat is the source of most of the geothermal energy paraphrases “… most geothermal
energy production involves the tapping of high heat sources,” and low heat groundwater is also used sometimes paraphrases “people are also using the low-temperature geothermal energy of groundwater in some applications.”
33. B “… areas of high heat flow are associated with plate tectonic boundaries.” Choice A is not correct because geothermal heat flow is very low compared with solar heat. Choice C is not correct because, in some areas, heat flow is sufficiently high. Choice D is not correct because geothermal energy is very practical along plate boundaries.
34. A In this passage, large is a synonym for “considerable” in reference to “thermal pollution.” Context comes from the contrast with the phrase “atmospheric pollutants” in the previous sentence.
35. B “… geothermal energy does not produce the atmospheric pollutants associated with burning fossil fuels.” Choice A is not correct because the pollution caused by geothermal energy was introduced before the discussion on atmospheric pollution. Choice C is not correct because environmental problems caused by geothermal energy are mentioned. Choice D is not correct because the author points out the problem of pollution, but does not suggest that the use of raw materials and chemicals be discontinued.
36. A Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 4. Choices C and D are mentioned in paragraph 6, sentences 5 and 6.
37. C “… known geothermal resources … could produce … 10% of the electricity … for the western states___ Geohydrothermal resources not yet discovered could … provide … [the] equivalent [of] the electricity produced from water power today.” Choice A is not correct because the author points out the disadvantages but argues in favor of using geothermal energy. Choice B is not correct because the author does not mention exploration as a prerequisite to further production. Choice D is not correct because the author cites the potential for geothermal energy to equal the production of water power, not to replace water power.
38. C Vocabulary reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. “One such region” is a phrase in the insert sentence that refers to “Oceanic ridge systems” in the previous sentence.
39. B, D, E summarize the passage. Choice A is true, but it is a minor point that provides an example for major point B. Choice C is true, but it refers to one example of cultural values developed in major point E. Choice F is true, but it is a detail that provides support for the environmental problems mentioned in major point E.
Reading 4 “Migration from Asia ”
40. D In this passage, particular is a synonym for “distinctive.”
41. C “. . . Stone Age hunter-gatherers were attracted by these animal populations [large animals].”
Choice A is not mentioned. Choice B is not correct because the tools were made from the animals, not traded with other tribes. Choice D is not correct because the dogs accompanied them.
42. B In this passage, the phrase Joined by is a synonym for “Accompanied by.” Context comes from
the word part, “company.”
43. B “Because modem Asian populations include all three blood types, however, the migrations
must have begun before the evolution of type B, which [evolution] geneticists believe occurred.” The pronoun “which” does not refer to Choices A, C, or D.
44. D “… the migrations must have begun before the evolution of type B.” Choice A is not correct
because the time frame was the same as the settlement of Scandinavia, but the origin of the migration was not Scandinavian. Choice B is not correct because almost no Native Americans have type B. Choice C is not correct because the blood typing was done with Native Americans and Asians, not Scandinavians.
45. D “… glacial melting created an ice-free corridor along the eastern front range of the Rocky
Mountains. Soon hunters … had reached the Great Plains.” Choices A and C are not correct because the corridor was ice-free. Choice B is not correct because the hunters were looking for big game, but the game did not leave a migration path.
46. B “The most spectacular find, at Monte Verde in southern Chile, produced striking evidence of
tool making, house building … before the highway had been cleared of ice.” Choice A is not correct because archeologists believe that migration in boats may have occurred, but no boats were found. Choice C is not correct because the footprints found there were human, not those of large animals. Choice D is not correct because no conclusions were made about the intelligence of the early humans.
47. A In this passage, In the end is a synonym for “Eventually.” Context comes from the phrase “The
final migration” in the following sentence.
48. A Beringia was under water paraphrases “Beringia had been submerged” and the last people
paraphrases The final migration.”
49. D Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 3. Choices B and C are mentioned in para
graph 6, sentence 5. Choice D is not true because the Yuptiks settled the coast of Alaska, not the Great Plains.
50. D “… the most compelling support [for migration]… comes from genetic research.” Choice A is
not correct because oral traditions include a long journey from a distant place to a new homeland. Choice B is not correct because the author presents the evidence without commenting on the authenticity. Choice C is not correct because the author states that the Asian migration hypothesis is supported by most of the scientific evidence-51 . C Chronological order and place reference are transitional devices that connect the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The date, 13,000 b.c.e. in the previous paragraph is a date that precedes 11,000 to 12,000 years old in the insert sentence. In addition, Washington State, California, and Peru in the insert sentence refer to the Pacific coast of North and South America in the previous sentence.
52. E, D, C summarize the passage. Choice A is a concluding point that is not developed with examples and details. Choice B is a minor point that supports major point E. Choice F is a minor point that supports major point D.