N: Narrator P: Professor
N: Listen to a talk on modem history. The professor is discussing prohibition.
P: All right… we have an interesting part of history to discuss today. It’s called prohibition and tt took place In the early 20th century. You might have heard of it. During that period … well, actually, there were several periods … It started out with restrictions in the manufacture, transport. Import, export and sale of alcoholic beverages. And by 1914, all of these activities became illegal.
Religion had a lot to do with prohibition from the 1840s through the 1930s. The Protestant denominations … the Methodists, the Northern and Southern Baptists, Presbyterians, the Quakers and other minor religious groups demanded that alcohol be prohibited. Drinking was considered a sin by these yoops and saloons were places of corruption and evil. Their way of thinking was known as ttie “dries” – that’s D-R-I-E-S. On the other hand, the Episcopalians, German Lutherans, and the Roman Catholics thought that It wasn’t the government’s place to define morality. These were called the “wets”. In the 19th century, prohibition was a significant policy In poiitical platforms on city and state levels.
When did it become nationwide? In 1917, the 65th Congress met to vote on the Eighteenth Amendment and the dries outnumbered the wets 270 to 126, The amendment was ratified on January 16, 1919, and about a year later, on January 20, prohibition was enforced by special agents. So how were political parties persuaded by religion to make the Eighteenth Amendment into law? Well, there was a political party, you know, like the Republicans and the Democrats … and the name of this party was the Prohibition Party. It was part of the temperance movement, a movement that was fighting to either reduce the amount of alcohol being consumed or even prohibit It completely. Now I said a while back that the Idea of prohibition was formed by religious groups .. but women of the early 20th century were the ones who supported the temperance movement. Some of these women were familiar with the domestic violence that often ensued after their husbands had imbibed. Plus the fact that much of the household income went to alcohol, the women were only too happy to give prohibition their support.
Just how successful was prohibition … I mean in terms of Its Intent to reduce alcohol consumption… Because that’s what it was all about, right? You wouldn’t ban the manufacturing, transport and selling of alcohol if it wasn’t your aim to reduce the amount of alcohol being consumed. Weil, the law did not make it Illegal to own or consume alcohol. So … the existing stock of alcohol was consumed legally throughout the period of prohibition. But people did think it Ironic that government leade-s were going after those who engaged in illegal brewing activities but were stocking the White House with bootleg liquor.
It was certainly difficult to enforce prohibition laws because gangsters produced aloohoi, sold it to consumers and bribed prohibition agents to look the other way. So Instead of manufacturers producing clean, cheap alcohol, you had organized crime taking over the manufacture and safe of alcoholic beverages. So what the temperance movement accomplished was to pot money in the pockets of the criminals. Al Capone built his empire on sales of illegal alcohol. And the alcohol being produced was not only of inferior quality … it was also poisonous. Some people went blind or suffered from brain damage or became partially paralyzed after consuming gin that was made of Industrialized alcohol or various industrial poisons.
People found ways to get their alcohol. One really funny one … There was a beverage called “near beer.”
It was legal because It was under 0.5% alcohol. So it was virtually a non-alcoholic beverage. Beer Is usually between 5 and 12% alcohol. Well, near beer was sold with very specific Instructions on what not to do to make It Into an alcoholic drink. Customers simply followed the Instructions to turn it into alcohol.
So the black market for alcohol flourished. People were still drinking. Alcohol was being smuggled in from Canada. Crimes related to bootlegging increased. People were dying from poisonous alcohol. Government realized that they weren’t getting any revenues because alcohol couldn’t be taxed. It was Impossible to determine the amount of alcohol being consumed at the time because the gangsters didn’t have to pay taxes for producing and selling alcohol. It appears that prohibition exacerbated the problem of overdrinking — ban something and people will want It. Even children became curious and began drinking alcohol. Why not? They saw their own parents breaking the law. So … after 13 years of prohibition, the Twenty-first Amendment was proposed by Congress. In 1933 and In Just 10 months, It was ratified. The amendment gave states the right to restrict or ban the purchase ‘ and sale of alcohol. Some states did continue to enforce prohibition, but manufacturers In other states began to legally produce alcohol Immediately.
N: Narrator S: Student A: Administrator
N: Listen to a conversation between a student and an office administrator.
S: Hi, I need to drop a class and add one to replace it. Is this the right office for that?
A: It sure Is. Did you fill out a Drop/Add form yet?
S: Um, no I didn’t, actually. Where might I find one of those?
A: Well, you passed right by them on the way in, OK, on the counter next to the entrance you’ll see a set of racks. Each rack Is labeled, so Just look for the forms marked “Droo/Add.” They’re pink.
S: I see. I do have a few questions before I fill one out. May I speak to you about my situation?
A: Of course. Have a seat,
S: Well, OK, I need to drop one of my classes, and I’m not sure If I’m allowed to, Do I need a valid reason to drop a class?
A: No, You may drop a class for any reason, but you can add a replacement class only In the first two weeks of a semester.
S: Oh, well that makes sense. If I don’t add a cfass, then I’ll have to make it up some other time?
A: That’s right—either during summer sessions or during extra semesters. Of course, both of these options will entail additional costs. Oh, you could take an extra class for free in an upcoming semester, but some students find the workload difficult to manage. Let me ask you. Ah, do you absolutely have to drop a c’tass this semester?
S: Uh, yes, I’m afraid so. I have a scheduling conflict with an Internship I’m doing. Not many students get accepted . Into this program, so I think I have to take It. Unfortunately, I have to give up a class to do It.
A: Hmm. I see. Well, the good news is that you still have time to add a class, but the earlier the better,
S: Oh? Why’s that?
A: You see, every class has a limit to the number of students allowed. The sooner you add, the better the chances of getting the class you want.
S: Oh. by the way, the class I hav0 to drop Is required for my major. Do you think I should add a class In my major or not?
A: That’s totally up to you, but If you need to fulfill some requirements for your major, it’s better to get them out of the way ahead of time. Pius, you’ll get preference for a class in your major over someone trying to add the class as an elective.
S: Wow, that’s a lot to consider. Maybe I should take an easier class because of all the time I’ll be spending at the Internship.
A: Yes, that’s something you’ll have to think about too.
S: Could I get a course catalog to look at all the classes again? I’d better take a good look at it at home.
A: Sure, they’re next to the racks by the door. Vou can pick one up on your way out. Don’t take too long, though.
S: Oh. I’ll be sure to submit my form tomorrow or the day after. By the way, can I fax it to you?
A: Um, no, actually the form has attached duplicates that we’ll need, and you have to submit it in person with a student ID.
S: I see. OK then, I’ll probably see you in a đay or two. Thanks so much for your time.
A: No problem. Don’t forget to take a course catalog and some pink Drop/Add forms. Take some extra, just in case, s OK, I will. Thanks again!