Reading 3 “Building with Arches”
27. A . the arch is stable only when it is complete, when the topmost stone, the keystone, has been set in place.” Choice B is not correct because the historical background was provided at the beginning of the passage. Choice C is not correct because the virtues are pointed out before the keystone is mentioned. Choice D is not correct because the passage is about arches, and no alternatives are suggested.
28. D In this passage, essential is a synonym for “inherent.”
29. D Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 2, sentence 4. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 2, sentence 5. Choice C is mentioned in paragraph 2, sentence 5.
30. D In this passage, practically is a synonym for “virtually.”
31. C “This vault construction makes it possible to create large interior spaces.” Choices A, B, and D are true, but they are not advantages of the arch.
32. A “Earlier churches had used the old Roman forms of round arch and barrel vault so as to add height to their churches.” Choice B is not correct because wooden beams characterized buildings before the Romanesque style. Choice C is not correct because the Romanesque buildings added height. Choice D is not correct because the Romanesque style was many hundreds of years later.
33. C … a concern because of fire paraphrases “a threat of fire” and constraints they imposed on the height of the ceiling paraphrases “limited the height to which architects could aspire.”
34. B In this passage, accomplish is a synonym for “achieve.” Context comes from the contrast with
“limited” in the previous sentence.
35. D “Barrel vaults are both literally and visually heavy, calling for huge masses of stone to maintain their [the vaults] structural stability.” The pronoun “their” does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.
36. C “… massive walls that they dared not weaken with light-admitting openings.” Choice A is not correct because the Gothic period, which followed the Romanesque, solved the problem with pointed arches that allowed for windows. Choice B is not correct because the author does not mention that windows were difficult to make. Choice D is not correct because the reference to reinforcement at the major points of intersection was characteristic of Gothic, not Romanesque, architecture.
37. B “The pointed arch … offers many advantages … and … the arch can be taller.” Choice A is
not correct because such an arch [pointed] can be much taller than a barrel vault. Choice C is not correct because the nave added space but not height. Choice D is not correct because windows were an additional advantage of pointed arch construction, but they did not extend the height.
38. D Vocabulary reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The connection is the reference to “reinforced” in the first sentence and “These reinforcements” in the second sentence. Choices A, B, and G are not correct because there are no vocabulary references to connect them with the insert sentence.
39. Round Arch: C, D, G, H Pointed Arch: A, E, I Not used: B, F
Reading 4 “The Digital Divide”
40. A The author mentions the telephone to demonstrate that even technology like the telephone is
not available to all. “Only 6 percent of the population in developing countries are connected to telephones.”
41. B The number of people who use computers and the Internet is increasing paraphrases “the
number of Internet users is growing” and most people in the world still do not have connections paraphrases “most of the world’s population does not have access to computers or the Internet.”
42. C In this passage, people refers to “residents.” Context comes from the previous reference to a
place, “some Native American reservations,” in the same sentence. Choices A, B, and D are not correct because they are not capable of being residents [living in a place].
43. D In this passage, remove is a synonym for “eliminate.” Context comes from the word “remove”
later in the same sentence.
44. B “The digital divide between the populations who have access to the Internet and information
technology tools is based on income, race, education, household type, and geographic location . . . .” Choice A is not correct because the divide is not limited to developing nations. Choice C is not correct because socioeconomic level is only one of the factors. Choice D is not correct because the divide is between those with access and without access, not between different groups with access.
45. A The author gives details about the percentages of Internet users to prove that there are differences in opportunities among social groups. Choice B is not correct because the author is presenting facts and statistics, not a persuasive argument. Choice C is not correct because no improvements are mentioned. Choice D is not correct because no explanation is provided with the facts.
46. B “… 31 percent of black households.” Choice A is not correct because 40 percent of households with one parent have access. Choice C is not correct because 32 percent of Latino households have access. Choice D is not correct because 72 percent of households with two parents have access.
47. B “Women . . . are receiving fewer than 30 percent of the bachelor’s degrees in computer and information science. The result [of receiving fewer degrees] is that women and members of the
most oppressed ethnic groups are not eligible for the jobs____” Choice A is not correct because information about admission is not included in the passage. Choice C is not correct because we do not know whether they are interested. Choice D is not correct because the jobs with the highest salaries are in computer science.
48. C “… a higher percentage of the schools with more affluent students have wired classrooms than those [schools] with high concentrations of low-income students.” The pronoun “those” does not refer to Choices A, B, or D.
49. B In this passage, numbers is a synonym for “concentrations.” Context comes from the references in previous sentences to “percentage” and “number.”
50. C Because “schools … cannot currently afford the equipment which needs to be updated regularly every three years or so,” it must be concluded that the cost of replacing equipment is a problem. Choice A is not correct because the quality of the computers is not mentioned. Choices B and D are not correct because no judgments are made.
51. C Conclusion from evidence is the transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. . a higher percentage of the schools with more affluent students have wired classrooms … Thus, the students who are most unlikely to have access at home also do not have access in their schools____” Choices A, B, and D are not correct because they do not provide the evidence for the conclusion in the insert sentence that follows them.
52. D, B, F summarize the passage. Choice A is a detail that is not developed in the passage. Choice
C is a minor point that supports major point D. Choice E is a minor point that supports major point B.