TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 08 from IVY’s Reading Actual Test

Passage 2| Music

Music and the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution began with the introduction of steam power and mechanized manufacturing in the second half of the eighteenth century. This quickly •s led to the innovations of machine tools and factory assembly lines. Later, steam¬ships and the railroad allowed supplies and products to be transferred expeditiously to distant destinations. Roughly defined as the o period from 1760 to 1830 and beyond, the Industrial Revolution utterly transformed the technologies and economics of the world. But such changes were not simply limited to production; cultural institutions were profoundly affected as well. A study of Western music during this time demonstrates how thoroughly the consequences of the Industrial Revolution permeated people’s lives.

Western music in the eighteenth and 20 nineteenth centuries is categorized into two periods: Classical and Romantic. The Classical era is commonly demarcated as 1730-1820, before and concurrent with the early stages of the Industrial Revolution. Famous composers n such as Mozart and Haydn were active during this time frame. They produced pieces written for soloists, small chamber music ensembles, and the limited full orchestras of the time.

The style of the music developed by Classical composers was fundamentally shaped by their intended audience. In the eighteenth century, musicians wrote and presented music only for high society—the aristocracy, fellow musicians, and the Church.

The great majority of the population had no exposure to music other than traditional folk songs. Most composers were actually retained by noblemen or other powerful people as servants to provide music for their courts. Not only were concerts held in these formal settings; most people who attended a performance had at least some background knowledge of the musical principles of order and symmetry that were accepted at the time. For these reasons. Classical composers tended to adhere strictly to the established forms and rules assigned to the particular types of pieces they created. The structure of a composition was of equal or typically more importance than the emotional result of the music.

At the turn of the nineteenth century, when the myriad technological advancements of the Industrial Revolution were really beginning to affect the lives of ordinary people. Classicism in Western music was gradually giving way to a new style—Romanticism. The Romantic period usually dates from 1820 to about 1910. Though some basic forms carried over from the Classical period, there were significant changes on many levels. Most obviously, improved manufacturing processes developed during the Industrial Revolution translated into better-quality instruments. Pianos, violins, and other stringed instruments were built stronger and louder. In particular, the woodwinds benefited from newly introduced mechanical components, giving them a much more appealing sound, and they became quite popular. The end result was a greatly expanded orchestra with a wider variety of instruments. Composers such as Brahms, Wagner, and Tchaikovsky were the dominant creators of this period.

Another dramatic outcome of the Industrial Revolution was the rise of the middle class, a segment of society with enough expendable income to pay to attend concerts and recitals. [A] Larger, more elaborate concerts were held, and this shift altered the music itself. [B] Composers experimented with stretching and even breaking the limits of the old Classical rules. [C] Popular Romantic ideals of imagination and emotion were reflected in the music. [D] Folk tunes were even utilized s to relate to a broader audience. Also during this time, musicians and composers lost their roles as servants to the aristocracy and gained celebrity status as more and more people were exposed to their work.

The transference of music from high to middle classes not only manifested itself in large orchestral performances, but on a much smaller scale as well. In addition to enabling the creation of higher quality instruments, the Industrial Revolution also introduced their mass production. Ordinary people could now afford to buy their own pianos, violins, and guitars. In many homes, the parlor room was the center of family life, and during the Romantic period, it became the frequent site of solo and ensemble performances. Such events served as entertainment for guests, musical education for children, and an occupation for many musicians who made a living performing in these private spaces. Music which once had existed only within aristocratic courts was now being heard in middle-class homes throughout the Western world.

14. The word profoundly in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) badly
(B) occasionally
(C) greatly
(D) hardly

15. What can be inferred from paragraph 1 about the Industrial Revolution?
(A) It improved manufacturing using traditional technologies.
(B) There is no definitive date for its endpoint.
(C) It utilized the railroad more than it did steamships.
(D) The reach of its effects is still not fully understood.

16.The word demarcated in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) measured
(B) denied
(C) followed
(D) protected

17. According to paragraph 3, performances during the Classical period
(A) were opportunities for composers to showcase new forms

(B) were formal occasions both in location and musical style
(C) featured music of a predominantly religious nature
(D) included formalized versions of traditional folk songs

18. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
(A) The progression from Classical to Romantic music around 1800 was a gradual one, but many people soon took note of it
(B) It was the shift from Classicism to Romanticism that encouraged the acceptance of the Industrial Revolution by ordinary people in the Western world.
(C) At the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth centuries, technological innovations from the Industrial Revolution changed music forever.
(D) Western music was transitioning from Classical to Romantic as the Industrial Revolution started to make its way into people’s lives around 1800.

19. Based on information from paragraph 4 about the relationship between the Classical and Romantic periods, it can be inferred that
(A) Romantic music bore no resemblance to that from the Classical period
(B) there were more composers creating music during the Romantic period
(C) Romantic music included the piano whereas Classical music did not
(D) woodwind instruments were used more frequently in Romantic music

20. The word expendable in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) extra
(B) excellent
(C) exact
(D) expensive

21. Why does the author mention celebrity status in paragraph 5?
(A) To explain that some composers were more widely accepted than others
(B) To give an example of the subject matter of many popular folk songs
(C) To contrast the position of musicians in the Romantic and Classical periods
(D) To describe the diminishing importance of the aristocracy in society in the Romantic era

22. The word their in the passage refers to
(A) audience
(B) musicians and composers
(C) servants
(D) aristocracy

23. The word manifested in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) destroyed
(B) advertised
(C) supported
(D) displayed

24. According to paragraph 6, what led the home to become a site for musical presentations?
(A) The increased production and availability of instruments
(B) The desire of families to educate their children in music
(C) The great wealth accumulated by the middle classes
(D) The growing number of musicians looking for work

25. Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

This new, sizable audience meant that musical performances no longer had to be organized to cater solely to high society.

Where would the sentence best fit?
Click on a square H to add the sentence to the passage.

26. Directions: Complete the table by matching the statements below.
Select the appropriate statements from the answer choices and match them to the musical period to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.

Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it To review the passage, click View Text

Answer Choices

(A) Music for soloists did not exist

(B) Musicians depended on the patronage of the wealthy

(C) Emotions evoked by music were more important than its format •

(D) Orchestras typically included fewer instruments.

(E) Most music was composed by the middle class.

(F) Composers made use of folk melodies.

(G) Audiences were familiar with formal music theory.

(H) Perfection of musical structure was the primary goal.

( I ) Quality instruments were accessible for private use.

Classical period
Romantic period

Reading Passage 1  Reading Passage 3  Solution & Explanation for Reading Passage 2